What’s So Sacred About Frankincense? Part Deux
Last week I dug into some the research on sacred frankincense. After getting knocked out by an explosion of articles, for the sanity of all, I decided to break the blog up into two parts. So, if you aren’t yet convinced that frankincense is amazing, you soon will be.
In case you missed part I, I discussed the following:
- some of the basic background and properties
- the different species of frankincense
- the vast amount of research (346 hits! Really? Thanks, PubMed!)
- the importance of quality
Please note that this is meant to be an overview of frankincense, the plant. This means some of these studies are reports on the extract or herb, they have different compounds than the essential oil. It will be indicated in the study if it is the essential oil.
Due to the new FDA regulations, full abstracts are included in the blog. I have highlighted the important points within the explanation of the abstract for those who wish to skim.
The Science & Studies
Although scientists are still trying to fully understand and explain how frankincense works, they are finding this difficult because its mechanism of action can’t be isolated to one constituent. Furthermore, one constituent can have more than one action. This means that the synergy of the complete oil cannot be fully explained by breaking it into its individual parts. For example, boswellic acids are the most studied constituents to explain frankincense’s action on inflammation. Various mechanisms are reported on how this is accomplished. For years, it was believed to be through inhibiting the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. However, one study below reports that in human blood, boswellic acids may inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and the serine protease cathepsin G. (Note, topical application and inhalation are not considered in this study.)
Furthermore, what about the monterpenes, including a-thujene, B-pinene, and myrcene in the essential oil? A lot of trials are so busy studying this isolate, they aren’t accounting for all the components in the oil that may also be contributing to its ability to modulate various pathways.
Helping with Inflammatory Responses
Various studies have shown frankincense, specifically Boswellia serrata, to modulate inflammatory responses in vitro, in vivo, and in human trials. These findings have extended to studying its effect on conditions associated with digestive problems, respiratory issues, joint pain, and more!
1. Abstract On New Mechanism of Inflammation Enzymes Pathway Inhibition
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake is associated with high prevalence of gastrointestinal or cardiovascular adverse effects. All efforts to develop NSAIDs that spare the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovasculature are still far from achieving a breakthrough. In the last two decades, preparations of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata (a traditional ayurvedic medicine) and of other Boswellia species have experienced increasing popularity in Western countries. Animal studies and pilot clinical trials support the potential of B. serrata gum resin extract (BSE) for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and asthma. Moreover, in 2002 the European Medicines Agency classified BSE as an ‘orphan drug’ for the treatment of peritumoral brain oedema. Compared to NSAIDs, it is expected that the administration of BSE is associated with better tolerability, which needs to be confirmed in further clinical trials. Until recently, the pharmacological effects of BSE were mainly attributed to suppression of leukotriene formation via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) by two boswellic acids, 11-keto-?-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA). These two boswellic acids have also been chosen in the monograph of Indian frankincense in European Pharmacopoiea 6.0 as markers to ensure the quality of the air-dried gum resin exudate of B. serrata. Furthermore, several dietary supplements advertise the enriched content of KBA and AKBA. However, boswellic acids failed to inhibit leukotriene formation in human whole blood, and pharmacokinetic data revealed very low concentrations of AKBA and KBA in plasma, being far below the effective concentrations for bioactivity in vitro. Moreover, permeability studies suggest poor absorption of AKBA following oral administration. In view of these results, the previously assumed mode of action – that is, 5-LO inhibition – is questionable. On the other hand, 100-fold higher plasma concentrations have been determined for ?-boswellic acid, which inhibits microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and the serine protease cathepsin G. Thus, these two enzymes might be reasonable molecular targets related to the anti-inflammatory properties of BSE. In view of the results of clinical trials and the experimental data from in vitro studies of BSE, and the available pharmacokinetic and metabolic data on boswellic acids, this review presents different perspectives and gives a differentiated insight into the possible mechanisms of action of BSE in humans. It underlines BSE as a promising alternative to NSAIDs, which warrants investigation in further pharmacological studies and clinical trials.
Abdel-Tawab M1, Werz O, Schubert-Zsilavecz M. Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011 Jun;50(6):349-69. doi: 10.2165/11586800-000000000-00000.
2. Abstract On Various Effects on Immune Modulation, Inflammatory Pathways, and the Importance of Standardization of Constituents (Quality)
Extracts from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and some of is constituents including boswellic acids affect the immune system in different ways. Among the various boswellic acids 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid have been observed to be active. However, also other boswellic acids may exhibit actions in the immune system. In the humoral defence system a mixture of boswellic acis at higher doses reduced primary antibody titres; on the other hand lower doses enhanced secondary antibody titres following treatment with sheep erythrocytes. In the cellular defence boswellic acides appear to increase lymphocyte proliferation whereas higher concentrations are even inhibitory. Moreover, BAs increase phagocytosis of macrophages. BAs affect the cellular defence system by interaction with production/release of cytokines. Thus, BAs inhibit activation of NFkappaB which is a product of neutrophile granulocytes. Consequently a down regulation of TNF-alpha and decrease of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, which are proinflammatory cytokines by BEs and BAs has been reported. Suppressions of the classic way of the complement system was found to be due to inhibition of the conversion of C3 into C3a and C3b. However, which of these pharmacological actions contribute to the therapeutic effects and which is finally the best dosage of a standardized extract needs further examination. And it is also a question whether or not a single BA will have the same therapeutic effect as a standardized extract. Among the mediators of inflammatory reaction, mast cell stabilization has been described by a BE. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis appears to play only a minor role as far as the anti-inflammatory effect is concerned. On the other hand the inhibitory action of BAs on 5-LO leading to a decreased production of leukotrienes has received high attention by the scientific community since a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases is associated with increased leukotriene activity. At the end of the cascade of events in the cellular immune system as far as it directs to various tissues of the body – i.e. autoimmune diseases – formation of oxygen radicals and proteases (for example elastase) play an important destructive role. Here, BEs as well as BAs have been found to be inhibitory. From the pharmacological properties of BEs and BAs it is not surprising that positive effects of BEs in some chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease have been reported.
Ammon HP. Modulation of the immune system by Boswellia serrata extracts and boswellic acids. Phytomedicine. 2010 Sep;17(11):862-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.03.003. Epub 2010 Aug 8.
3. Another Abstract On Various Immune Conditions Modulated by Boswellia and Mechanisms of Actions
Oleogum resins from BOSWELLIA species are used in traditional medicine in India and African countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Animal experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The mechanism of this action is due to some boswellic acids. It is different from that of NSAID and is related to components of the immune system. The most evident action is the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. However, other factors such as cytokines (interleukins and TNF-alpha) and the complement system are also candidates. Moreover, leukocyte elastase and oxygen radicals are targets. Clinical studies, so far with pilot character, suggest efficacy in some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and bronchial asthma. Side effects are not severe when compared to modern drugs used for the treatment of these diseases.
Ammon HP. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases. Planta Med. 2006 Oct;72(12):1100-16.
4. Abstract On A Clinical Trial In Those With Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Note: This trial used Boswellin gum resin, a commercial product
Complementary therapies are frequently used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term therapy with a new Boswellia serrata extract (Boswelan, PS0201Bo) in maintaining remission in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD).
METHODS: In 22 German centers a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel study was performed. In all, 108 outpatients with CD in clinical remission were included. Patients were randomized to Boswelan (3×2 capsules/day; 400 mg each) or placebo for 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in whom remission was maintained throughout the 52 weeks. Secondary endpoints were time to relapse, changes of Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and IBD Questionnaire (IBDQ) scores.
RESULTS: The trial was prematurely terminated due to insufficient discrimination of drug and placebo with regard to the primary efficacy endpoint. A total of 82 patients were randomized to Boswelan (n=42) or placebo (n=40). Sixty-six patients could be analyzed for efficacy. 59.9% of the actively treated patients and 55.3% of the placebo group stayed in remission (P=0.85). The mean time to diagnosis of relapse was 171 days for the active group and 185 days for the placebo group (P=0.69). With respect to CDAI, IBDQ, and laboratory measurements of inflammation, no advantages in favor of active treatment were detected. Regarding safety concerns, no disadvantages of taking the drug compared to placebo were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The trial confirmed good tolerability of a new Boswellia serrata extract, Boswelan, in long-term treatment of CD. However, superiority versus placebo in maintenance therapy of remission could not be demonstrated.
Holtmeier W1, Zeuzem S, Preiss J, Kruis W, Böhm S, Maaser C, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Boswellia serrata in maintaining remission of Crohn’s disease: good safety profile but lack of efficacy. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Feb;17(2):573-82. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21345.
5. Abstract Showing Improvements In IBD Markers With Frankincense Resins
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet known, but many factors such as defects in the immune system, oxidative stress, microbial content in the gastrointestinal tract, nuclear factor (NF)-?B, nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), and leukotriene B4 (LB4) are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants are thought to be effective for the treatment of IBD. In this study, information on all of these remedies were derived from all available old sources such as documents or notes and books and were added to the information derived from modern medical databases covering all in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials. For some of these plants, only one or two mechanisms of action have been found such as in Cassia fistula, Lepidium sativum, and Bunium persicum. However, for some plants various mechanisms of action are known. For example, Commiphora mukul is effective in IBD due to its immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties and it decreases NF-?B, NO and Cox-2. Another herb, Plantago ovata, has immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities and decreases NO and LB4. Considering the mechanisms of action of these plants, the combination of some of them may be useful because of their many mechanisms of action such as Pistacia lentiscus, Bunium persicum, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata, Boswellia, Solanum nigrum, Plantago ovata and Commiphora mukul. For some of the herbal products used in TIM such as oleogum resin from Commiphora myrrha, seeds of Ocimum basilicum, seeds of Linum usitatissimum, gum resin of Dracaena cinnabari, seeds of Plantago major, seeds of Lallementia royleana, and seeds of Allium porrum, there is no or not enough studies to confirm their benefits in IBD. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different aspects of IBD should be performed.
Rahimi R, Shams-Ardekani MR, Abdollahi M. A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Sep 28;16(36):4504-14. Review. PMID: 20857519
6. Abstract On A Clinical Trial for Reducing the Intensity and Frequency of Headaches
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache is an extremely severe and debilitating trigemino-autonomic pain syndrome. About 10% of patients with cluster headache manifest a chronic form (CCH).The present case series study aims to evaluate the long-term efficacy of Boswellia serrata (Sallaki H15) on headaches and disturbed sleep in patients with CCH.
CASE RESULTS: In an open-label study, four patients with CCH and disturbed sleep received oral B. serrata.
CONCLUSION: The results provide Class IV evidence that oral B. serrata reduces the intensity and frequency of headaches in patients with CCH.
Lampl C, Haider B, Schweiger C. Long-term efficacy of Boswellia serrata in four patients with chronic cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 2012 Jul;32(9):719-22. doi: 10.1177/0333102412451357.
7. Abstract On Pain Modulation In Humans
Objective: Experimental pain models in human healthy volunteers are advantageous for early evaluation of analgesics. All efforts to develop nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are devoid of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system effects are still far from achieving a breakthrough. Hence we evaluated the analgesic activity of an ayurvedic drug, Boswellia serrata by using validated human pain models which has shown its analgesic activity both in-vitro and preclinical studies to evaluate the analgesic activity of single oral dose (125 mg, 2 capsules) of Boswellia serrata compared to placebo using mechanical pain model in healthy human subjects.
Materials and Methods: After taking written informed consent, twelve healthy subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive single oral dose of Boswellia serrata (Shallaki®) 125 mg, 2 capsules or identical placebo in a crossover design. Mechanical pain was assessed using Ugo basile analgesymeter (by Randall Selitto test) at baseline and at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs after test drug administration. Pain Threshold force and time and Pain Tolerance force and time were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done by paired t-test.
Results:Twelve healthy volunteers have completed the study. Mean percentage change from baseline in Pain Threshold force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly increased [Force: 9.7 ± 11.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.4 (P = 0.05) and time: 9.7 ± 10.7 vs 2.8 ± 3.4 (P = 0.04)] at third hr. Mean Percentage change from baseline in Pain Tolerance force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly (P ? 0.01) increased at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs.
Conclusion: In the present study, Boswellia serrata significantly increased the Pain Threshold and Pain Tolerance force and time compared to placebo. Both study medications were well tolerated. Further multiple dose studies may be needed to establish the analgesic efficacy of the drug.
Prabhavathi, U. Shobha Jagdish Chandra, Radhika Soanker, and P. Usha Rani. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over study to evaluate the analgesic activity of Boswellia serrata in healthy volunteers using mechanical pain model. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 46(5): 475–479. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.140570
8. Abstract On Support For Healthy Blood Sugar
Background Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disorder that affects a large percentage of patients. High blood glucose causes fatty deposits in the liver which is likely to increase in SGOT and SGPT activities. Significant increase in SGOT/SGPT and low HDL levels is observed in patients with diabetes. Serum fructosamine concentration reflects the degree of blood glucose control in diabetic patients. This study was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of supplementation of Boswellia serrata in type2 diabetic patients.
Methods 60 type 2 diabetic patients from both sexes (30 males and 30 females) were dedicated to the control and intervention groups (30 subjects per group). Boswellia serrata gum resin in amount of 900 mg daily for 6 weeks were orally administered (as three 300 mg doses) in intervention group and the control group did not receive anything. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Blood levels of fructosamine, lipid profiles as well as hepatic enzyme in type 2 diabetic patients were measured.
Results Treatment of diabetic patient with Boswellia serrata was caused to significant increase in blood HDL levels as well as a remarkable decrease in cholesterol, LDL, fructosamine (p<0.05) SGPT and SGOT levels after 6 weeks (p<0.01). In spite of reduction of serum triglyceride, VLDL levels in intervention group, we did not detect a significant difference after 6 weeks.
Conclusion This study showed that Boswellia serrata supplementation can be beneficial in controlling blood parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its use can be useful in patients with medicines.
Akram Ahangarpour, Hamid Heidari, Ramezani Ali Akbari Fatemeh, Mostafa Pakmehr, Hajeye Shahbazian, Iraj Ahmadi, Zahra Mombeini, Babadi Hajani Mehrang. Effect of Boswellia serrata supplementation on blood lipid, hepatic enzymes and fructosamine levels in type2 diabetic patients. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014; 13: 29. Published online 2014 February 4. doi: 10.1186/2251-6581-13-29
More Study References
For those of you interested, below are more studies on frankincense from PubMed which include references to its ability to:
- suppress microbial survival in culture cells
- assist with modulating inflammation pathways
- prevent formation of tumors and suppress unhealthy cell survival in both cancer cell lines and in rodent studies
- support liver and kidney health in vitro
- support relief of joint pain and assist with joint health in human trials
- support oral health
For those of you biochemical whizzes, this article is a geek-out find! It reviews the mechanism of actions of triterpenoid metabolites in Boswellia spp, a table demonstrating the difference in species’ constituents, and ONE HUNDRED TWENTY SEVEN references to cross reference in your spare time if your little ones’ game got rained out. ;-D
A Source List of Frankincense Studies:
- Mahmoud M Suhail, Weijuan Wu, Amy Cao, Fadee G Mondalek, Kar-Ming Fung, Pin-Tsen Shih, Yu-Ting Fang, Cole Woolley, Gary Young, Hsueh-Kung Lin. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011; 11: 129. Published online 2011 December 15. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-129
- Z. Siddiqui. Boswellia Serrata, A Potential Antiinflammatory Agent: An Overview. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May-Jun; 73(3): 255–261. doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.93507
- Prabhavathi, U. Shobha Jagdish Chandra, Radhika Soanker, P. Usha Rani. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over study to evaluate the analgesic activity of Boswellia serrata in healthy volunteers using mechanical pain model. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 46(5): 475–479. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.140570
- Pooja Singh, K. Mathai Chacko, M. L. Aggarwal, Binu Bhat, R. K. Khandal, Sarwat Sultana, Binu T. Kuruvilla. A-90 Day Gavage Safety Assessment of Boswellia serrata in Rats.Toxicol Int. 2012 Sep-Dec; 19(3): 273–278. doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.103668
- M. H. Siddiqui, S. H. Afaq, M. Asif. CHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION OF ‘KUNDUR’ (Oleo-Gum-Resin of Boswellia serrata Roxb). Anc Sci Life. 1984 Jul-Sep; 4(1): 48–50.
- Y J1, Kamath JV, Asad M. Effect of hexane extract of Boswellia serrata oleo-gum resin on chemically induced liver damage. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Apr;19(2):129-33
- Yuxin Zhang, Zhangchi Ning, Cheng Lu, Siyu Zhao, Jianfen Wang, Baoqin Liu, Xuegong Xu, Yuanyan Liu. Triterpenoid resinous metabolites from the genus Boswellia: pharmacological activities and potential species-identifying properties. Chem Cent J. 2013; 7: 153. Published online 2013 September 12. doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-153. http://journal.chemistrycentral.com/content/7/1/153
- Alsaba F Raja, Furqan Ali, Inshad A Khan, Abdul S Shawl, Daljit S Arora, Bhahwal A Shah, Subhash C Taneja. Antistaphylococcal and biofilm inhibitory activities of acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid from Boswellia serrata .BMC Microbiol. 2011; 11: 54. Published online 2011 March 16. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-54
- Francesca Borrelli, Francesco Capasso, Raffaele Capasso, Valeria Ascione, Gabriella Aviello, Rocco Longo, Angelo A Izzo. Effect of Boswellia serrata on intestinal motility in rodents: inhibition of diarrhoea without constipation. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 June; 148(4): 553–560. Published online 2006 April 24. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706740
- Tukaram D. Nikam, Ravi P. Ghorpade, Kirti M. Nitnaware, Mahendra L. Ahire, Vinayak H. Lokhande, Arvind Chopra. Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrataPhysiol Mol Biol Plants. 2013 January; 19(1): 105–116. Published online 2012 September 23. doi: 10.1007/s12298-012-0137-3
- Xiao Ni, Mahmoud M Suhail, Qing Yang, Amy Cao, Kar-Ming Fung, Russell G Postier, Cole Woolley, Gary Young, Jingzhe Zhang, Hsueh-Kung Lin. Frankincense essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins induces human pancreatic cancer cell death in cultures and in a xenograft murine model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012; 12: 253. Published online 2012 December 13. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-253
- Mohammad Ahmed Khan, Mhaveer Singh, Masood Shah Khan, Abul Kalam Najmi, Sayeed Ahmad. Caspase Mediated Synergistic Effect of Boswellia serrata Extract in Combination with Doxorubicin against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 294143. Published online 2014 August 7. doi: 10.1155/2014/294143
- Ravi P. Ghorpade, Arvind Chopra, Tukaram D. Nikam. In vitro zygotic embryo germination and propagation of an endangered Boswellia serrata, a source of boswellic acid. Physiol Mol Biol Plants. 2010 April; 16(2): 159–165. Published online 2010 September 5. doi: 10.1007/s12298-010-0017-7
- Mohamad Ebrahim Azemi, Foroogh Namjoyan, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Forouzan Ahmadpour, Azam Darvish Padok, Marziyeh Panahi Jundishapur. The Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-diabetic Effect of Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch Aqueous Extract in Fertile Female Diabetic Rats and the Possible Effects on Reproduction and Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidneys. Nat Pharm Prod. 2012 Autumn; 7(4): 168–175. Published online 2012 October 7.
- Cyrus Jalili, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Sima Moradi, Ali Pourmotabbed, Moslem Motaghi. The Therapeutic Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Boswellia Serrata on the Learning Deficit in Kindled Rats. Int J Prev Med. 2014 May; 5(5): 563–568.
- Mark Barton Frank, Qing Yang, Jeanette Osban, Joseph T Azzarello, Marcia R Saban, Ricardo Saban, Richard A Ashley, Jan C Welter, Kar-Ming Fung, Hsueh-Kung Lin. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009; 9: 6. Published online 2009 March 18. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-6
- Alsaba F Raja, Furqan Ali, Inshad A Khan, Abdul S Shawl, Daljit S Arora. Acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA); targeting oral cavity pathogens. BMC Res Notes. 2011; 4: 406. Published online 2011 October 13. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-406
- C Lampl, B Haider, C Schweiger. Long-term efficacy of Boswellia serrata in 4 patients with chronic cluster headache. J Headache Pain. 2013; 14(Suppl 1): P37. Published online 2013 February 21. doi: 10.1186/1129-2377-14-S1-P37
- Krishanu Sengupta, Krishnaraju V Alluri, Andey Rama Satish, Simanchala Mishra, Trimurtulu Golakoti, Kadainti VS Sarma, Dipak Dey, Siba P Raychaudhuri. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin® for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008; 10(4): R85. Published online 2008 July 30. doi: 10.1186/ar2461
- Vivek R. Yadav, Sahdeo Prasad, Bokyung Sung, Juri G. Gelovani, Sushovan Guha, Sunil Krishnan, Bharat B. Boswellic Acid Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Human Colorectal Cancer in Orthotopic Mouse Model By Downregulating Inflammatory, Proliferative, Invasive, and Angiogenic Biomarkers. Published in final edited form as: Int J Cancer. 2012 May 1; 130(9): 2176–2184. Published online 2011 September 12. doi: 10.1002/ijc.26251
- Hidayat Hussain, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Ahmed Al-Rawahi, Javid Hussain. Chemistry and Biology of Essential Oils of Genus Boswellia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 140509. Published online 2013 March 6. doi: 10.1155/2013/140509 Retraction in: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014; 2014: 605304.
The paper titled “Chemistry and Biology of Essential Oils of Genus Boswellia” , published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, has been retracted as it was found to contain a substantial amount of material from the manuscript titled “The volatile constituents of frankincense—a review” by Michaela Mertens, Andrea Buettnera, and Eva Kirchhoffa which was published in Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 24, Issue 6, pages 279–300, November/December 2009, without proper citation.
If you want more, you can always check out the other 325 links on PubMed. ;-D
Disclaimer: This information is applicable ONLY for therapeutic, Grade A essential oils. This information DOES NOT apply to essential oils that have not been AFNOR and ISO standardized. There is no quality control in the United States and oils labeled as “100% pure” need only contain 5% of the actual oil. The rest of the bottle can be filled with fillers and sometimes toxic ingredients that can irritate the skin.
This information is for information purposes only and is not intended to diagnose, treat, or prescribe for any illness.
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