Our results provide evidence for a new role of PUFAs in the regulation of gene expression. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that re-expression of the tumor suppressor C/EBP? is controlled by the methylation state of a site-specific CpG dinucleotide.

Functional recovery after a peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is often poor. There is a need for therapies that protect neurons against injury and enhance regeneration. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to have therapeutic potential in a variety of neurological disorders, including acute traumatic injury.

Optimizing riboflavin status offers a low-cost targeted strategy for managing elevated BP in this genetically at-risk group. These findings, if confirmed in the general population, could have important implications for the prevention of hypertension.

ABSTRACT: Momordica charantia fruits are used as a vegetable in many countries. From time immemorial, it has also been used for management of diabetes in the Ayurvedic and Chinese systems of medicine. Information regarding the standardization of this vegetable for its usage as an antidiabetic drug is scanty. There are many reports on its effects on glucose and lipid levels in diabetic animals and some in clinical trials. Reports regarding its mechanism of action are limited. So in the present review all the information is considered to produce some concrete findings on the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Studies have shown that M. charantia repairs damaged ?-cells, increases insulin levels, and also enhance the sensitivity of insulin. It inhibits the absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and also suppresses the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine. It stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones and adiponectin and enhances the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Effects of M. charantia like transport of glucose in the cells, transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria, modulation of insulin secretion, and elevation of levels of uncoupling proteins in adipose and skeletal muscles are similar to those of AMPK and thyroxine. Therefore it is proposed that effects of M. charantia on carbohydrate and fat metabolism are through thyroxine and AMPK.

Source: Padmaja Chaturvedi. Journal of Medicinal Food. February 2012, 15(2): 101-107. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.0258.


Why is America Fat? (Dr.Lustig)

15 minute commentary by THE expert in Insulin-Leptin-Fat connection

In this interview Dr. Lustig discuss how fructose causes liver insulin resistance, causing the pancreas to make more. This raises insulin levels all over body and affect the whole body.

He also asks the question what insulin dynamic disorder is it?
1. Insulin Resistance Syndrome- Liver and Muscle Insulin Resistance from Sympathetic Nerve Mediated phenomenon

2. Insulin Hyper-secretion- Pancreatic Beta Cell phenomenon. Not well diagnosed because you have to stimulate beta cell to see it (Hypothalamic issue from brain trauma, drugs, and more)

Meditation Positively Affects Mood (Dr. Amen)

A recent study assessed whether engaging in a daily meditation program had any measurable effect on mood and anxiety in people with memory loss. The analysis also looked to see if the observed changes in mood and affect correlated with changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF).

The study consisted of 15 people with an average age of 62 all of which had problems with memory. The subjects were enrolled in an 8-week, 12-minutes a day meditation program. Neuropsychologic tests as well as measures of mood and anxiety were given before and after the meditation program period. As an added measure, subjects underwent single photon emission computed tomography scans.

The results of the study found that the meditation training program resulted in notable improvement trends in mood, anxiety, tension, and fatigue, with some parameters reaching statistical significance. In addition, all of these major trends correlated with changes in CBF. Even though all patients in this study reported positive changes in mood, anxiety, and other neuropsychologic parameters, a larger-scale study is needed to statistically confirm these findings and better explain the mechanisms of change.

Tips for Living in a Chemical World (Dr. Mercola)

  • Chlorella, a single-celled, micro-algae, is one of the most powerful detoxification tools to eliminate accumulated toxins, including mercury, in your body.
  • Body fat accumulates 10 to 100 times more toxins than your blood. One of the best ways to remove these toxins include detoxifying foods like high quality whey protein concentrate that has the precursors for glutathione, exercise, and using an infrared sauna.
  • Whole chlorella is completely indigestible, so in order to work as a detoxifyer, its cell wall must be broken during manufacturing process.
  • Chlorella also contains complete proteins, so vegans and vegetarians can use it to enhance their B vitamin and protein intake.

The Happiness Diet (VitalChoice Newsletter)


Sugar shrinks brain structures associated with mood control and memory (hippocampus and amygdala), in part because sugar lowers levels of key brain chemicals such as BDNF … levels of which omega-3s raise.

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
AGEs are sugar-protein compounds found in browned and fried foods. They stimulate ongoing internal production of the damaging, unstable oxygen compounds known as free radicals. See “Sugary Toxins Drive Diabetes, from Infancy”, which links to related reports.

Omega-6 fatty acids

Excess intake of these fats – which is very common among Americans – is associated with inflammation and a broad range of health problems.

This “omega imbalance” has made it difficult for the far smaller amounts of short-chain omega-3s in Americans’ diets to get converted to the long-chain forms (EPA and DHA) needed in cell membranes and for key brain and immune functions.

Four years ago, we reported on exciting animal research into the brain effects of omega-3s and junk foods.Scientists from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) found that rats fed omega-3 DHA enjoyed enhancements to their spatial learning ability during maze-navigation tests.Of the two major omega-3s in fish fat – EPA and DHA – only DHA abounds in the human brain and is proven essential to brain development and lifelong brain health.

Importantly, the DHA-enriched diet increased levels of several chemicals – such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) considered key to brain “plasticity”. (Exercising on a wheel raised levels of these beneficial factors even higher.)Plasticity is the ability to form new connections between brain cells (neurons), which is essential for memory and learning.

The DHA diet also lowered levels of oxidized (damaged) proteins in the brain’s memory center, called the hippocampus. And the combination of supplemental omega-3 DHA and exercise resulted in even greater reductions in damaged hippocampal proteins.

YIKES-Whistle-blowers Beware! FDA Monitors Emails about Mammography (Dr. Mercola)

Although its roots go way further back, the current saga began in 2007, when the plaintiffs, all of whom worked for the FDA’s Office of Device Evaluation, claim they began making internal complaints about a dozen radiological devices about to be approved despite lack of proof of effectiveness. The doctors and scientists were concerned that millions of patients would be put at risk. According to the featured article:

  • Three devices risked missing signs of breast cancer
  • One device risked falsely diagnosing osteoporosis
  • One ultrasound device could malfunction while monitoring pregnant women in labor
  • Several colon cancer screening devices employed such heavy doses of radiation that they risked causing cancer in otherwise healthy people

Why GM Foods Should be Labeled with a Skull and Crossbones (Dr. Mercola)

Monsanto wants you to simply trust them because they’re “experts” and because their industry-funded studies “prove” their GM foods are safe. But these same experts also told you PCB’s, Agent Orange, and DDT was safe, and we now know those claims were far from accurate.

Of course, in terms of reliability, there’s a big difference between corporate science, which tends to primarily favor and support corporate interests, and independent science, performed without preconceived bias. Scientists have, in fact, discovered a number of health problems related to genetically modified foods, including:

  • An analysis of 19 animal studies revealed that nearly 10 percent of blood, urine, organ and other parameters tested were significantly influenced by GMOs, with the livers and kidneys faring the worst.
  • A 2009 Brazilian study discovered that female rats fed GM soy for 15 months showed significant changes in their uterus and reproductive cycle, compared to rats fed organic soy or those raised without soy.
  • A study performed by Irina Ermakova with the Russian National Academy of Sciences reported that more than half the babies from mother rats fed GM soy died within three weeks, while the death rate in the non-GM soy group was only 10 percent. Additionally, the babies in the GM group were smaller, and, worst of all, could not reproduce. In a telling coincidence, after Ermakova’s feeding trials were completed, her laboratory started feeding all the rats in the facility a commercial rat chow using GM soy. Within two months, the infant mortality facility-wide reached 55 percent.
  • Milk treated with the Monsanto-developed genetically engineered bovine growth hormone (rBGH) contains higher levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), a hormone linked to breast, prostate and colon cancers in humans.

Why Organic Costs More (Mercola)

If you were to receive anannual federal subsidy directly, you would receive $7.36 to spend on junk food and just 11 cents to buy apples. In other words, every year, your tax dollars pay for enough corn syrup and other junk food additives to buy 19 Twinkies, but only enough fresh fruit to buy less than a quarter of one red delicious apple.

This is what the government’s priorities REALLY are with respect to your health. With all of the current focus on deficit reduction and wasteful government spending, you would think there would be pretty much universal agreement that there are far better uses for your tax money than subsidizing the ingredients of a Twinkie. Yet, this practice goes on year after year, and whatever feeble efforts emerge to change the status quo end up filed in the “circular file” at the end of the day.

Yoga and Bones (BetterBones Blog)

Over the last few years, Dr. Fishman has instructed women and men (average age of 68) to perform 10 basic yoga postures, 10 minutes a day to see how this gentle form of exercise might impact bone strength. To date, he has published his first results from a small pilot study of 11 people doing his short yoga program and seven others who didn’t do yoga.

While this pilot study is a simple one, and not tightly controlled, the results are intriguing. The yoga practitioners gained in T-score, which compares your bone density with that of an ideal young standard of the same gender. The gains included a 0.76 T-score point increase in the spine and 0.92 in the hip. This was enough of a change so that five yoga practitioners moved from having osteopenia to normal bone mineral density and two went from having a diagnosis of osteoporosis to osteopenia.

As Dr. Fishman suggests, these preliminary results are enough to warrant a well-funded, highly controlled trial. In the meantime, you might well build bone and strength, and enjoy other health benefits from a simple yoga routine.

Study compared girls’ habits and emotional health (VitalChoice)

The researchers, headed by professors Roy Pea and Clifford Nass, surveyed 3,461 girls, ages 8 to 12, about their electronic diversions and their social and emotional lives (Pea R et al. 2012). “The results were upsetting, disturbing, scary,” Nass said. The girls, all subscribers to Discovery Girls magazine, took the survey online and detailed the time they spent on a variety of activities:

The researchers say that while they found a correlation between some media habits and diminished social and emotional skills, no definite cause-and-effect relationship is proven.

3 Ways Gluten Makes You Fat (Dr. Hyman)

ow Wheat (and Gluten) Triggers Weight Gain, Prediabetes, Diabetes and MoreThis new modern wheat may look like wheat, but it is different in three important ways that all drive obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, dementia and more.

  1. It contains a Super Starch – amylopectin A that is super fattening.
  2. It contains a form of Super Gluten that is super-inflammatory.
  3. It contains forms of a Super Drug that is super-addictive and makes you crave and eat more.


Once-Weekly Exenatide Okayed by FDA for T2DM After Long Look (Medscape)

January 27, 2012 — The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved a once-weekly extended-release formulation of exenatide injection (Bydureon, Amylin Pharmaceuticals) as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes….

The agency still has its safety concerns. In approving the once-weekly medication, the FDA ordered Amylin to conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the drug’s effect on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with type 2 diabetes. The trial also must assess the risk for certain other adverse events, such as pancreatic cancer, renal disorders, and serious hypoglycemia, and the long-term effects on potential biomarkers of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In addition, the company must conduct a number of studies with mice — and one that also includes mice, rat, and human thyroid C cells — that focus on MTC.

Vitamins and Mortality: In Defense of Supplements (Ayaz Virji, MD. From Medscape Internal Medicine. 2/1/12)

The article by Mursu and colleagues[1] that was recently reported on in Medscape News indicates that ad libitum use of multivitamins does not reduce all-cause mortality in women; to the contrary, it may slightly increase it. This arm of the Iowa Women’s Health Study consisted of 38,772 elderly white women with a mean age of 61.6 years who were followed over 20 years. This well-designed, observational cohort study adjusted for diverse confounders, including body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking status, and educational level.

When interpreting these results, as for any other nutraceutical intervention, it would be imprudent to make broad, imprecise statements about the “ineffectiveness” of dietary supplements, although it may be tempting to do so. It is important to consider the limitations of the study to help prevent unscientific conclusions. The authors themselves conceded, “It is not advisable to make a causal statement of excess risk based on these observational data.”[1]

Wounds & Herbs (Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals)

Wound, a clinical entity, is as old as mankind and often possesses problems in clinical practice. Naturally, the investigative curiosity to promote healing continues since ages. A lot of research has been envisaged to develop better healing agents and it has been a challenging task to generate them and keep pace with the problems encountered. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties. Most of these drugs are derived from plants. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely Argemone mexicana, Boerhaavia diffusa, Catharanthus roseas, Diospyros cardifolia, Eclipta alba, Ficus religiosa, Hypericum perforatum, Lawsonia inermis, Merremia tridentate, and Swertia chirata, were found to be effective in experimental models. The rapidity of wound healing depends, to a considerable extent, on the contraction that begins a few days after injury and continues for several weeks. In the present review, attempts are made to understand various aspects of wound healing in terms of percentage closure of wound, period of complete epithelialization, tensile strength, histopathology, and weight of granuloma in different wound models.

Updated Death By Medicine (Dr. Mercola)

In all there were over 25 injuries per 100 admissions! In my update to the original Death by Medicine article, you can get an idea of just how deadly the conventional medical care system actually is:

  • In a June 2010 report in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, study authors said that in looking over recordsiii that spanned from 1976 to 2006 (the most recent year available) they found that, of 62 million death certificates, almost a quarter-million deaths were coded as having occurred in a hospital setting due to medication errors.
  • An estimated 450,000 preventable medication-related adverse events occur in the U.S. every year.
  • The costs of adverse drug reactionsiv to society are more than $136 billion annually — greater than the total cost of cardiovascular or diabetic care.
  • Adverse drug reactions cause injuries or death in 1 of 5 hospital patients.
  • The reason there are so many adverse drug eventsv in the U.S. is because so many drugs are used and prescribed – and many patients receive multiple prescriptions at varying strengths, some of which may counteract each other or cause more severe reactions when combined.


Published articles on essential oil research, especially those in medical journals would be very good. Here are just a couple examples:

The EODR cites some research: 1998: Chao studied a blend of oils patterned after that used by 15th century thieves containing cinnamon, rosemary, clove, eucalyptus and lemon was diffused in a closed room in which bacteria cultures were sprayed. There was an 82% reduction in M. Luteus, a 96% reduction in P. Aeruginosa, and a 44% reduction in S. Aureusbioaerosols following 10 minutes of exposure.

Another study compared the effectiveness of essential oils to antibiotics – preliminary results showed cinnamon and oregano are comparable with Penicillin and Ampicillin in inhibitory activity against E. coli and Staph. aureus.

From a medical journal: TEA TREE OIL: THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE ANTIMICROBIAL HYPE Because of increasing resistance to antibiotics, interest in finding alternatives is strong. Tea tree oil (TTO) has been widely used in Australia for 80 years and is active against many micro-organisms.

A pilot study of 30 MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) carriers comparing routine mupirocin nasal ointment and triclosan skin wash with TTO ointment and wash, showed one third were completely cleared by TTO but only 13% by conventional treatment.

In another trial of TTO in the treatment of herpes cold sores, the oil was found to assist healing to a similar degree as topical 5% acyclovir. The oil has about 100 components but 7 terpenes and their related alcohols constitute 80 to 90% of the whole oil. Several of these components have been shown to reduce levels of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Terpenes are lipophilic and partition into the phospholipid layer of cell membranes, disrupting normal structure and function. Allen, P., LANCET 2001, 358 (9289) 1245 or: Janssen AM et al, 1987. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils: 1976-1986 literature review. Planta Med 53 (5) 395-398.

Treatments for Measles (Medscape)

All suspected cases of measles should be reported immediately to the local or state public health department, even while awaiting test results. Vitamin A is the only intervention that has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, especially in children younger than 2 years of age. Measles infection is associated with low vitamin A concentrations, which contribute to such complications as keratoconjunctivitis. The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most prominent in developing countries but can also be seen in children from developed countries. The WHO therefore recommends administering a daily dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A for 2 days to all infected children older than 12 months, regardless of where they live.[3,25] Management is otherwise supportive and aimed at maintaining hydration, but antibiotics may be required for secondary bacterial infection. No antiviral treatment has been approved for measles. Ribavirin has been used in severe cases on the basis of evidence of in vitro susceptibility, but this intervention has not been evaluated systematically.[3,25]

Susceptible to Brain Shrinking with Alcohol (Dr. Amen)

If a healthy susceptible person is exposed to measles, a measles-containing vaccine should be administered within 3 days of the exposure (in the absence of contraindications). An intramuscular injection of immune globulin can be administered within 6 days of exposure to susceptible close contacts who are younger 12 months, pregnant, or immunocompromised and therefore cannot receive a measles-containing vaccine.[25] More detailed information on postexposure prophylaxis is available through the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Infectious Diseases.[25]

The study, conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and published in the May 2012 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, now online, provides new evidence that these dopamine receptors, known as DRD2, may play a protective role against alcohol-induced brain damage.

“This study clearly demonstrates the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in determining the damaging effects of alcohol on the brain, and builds upon our previous findings suggesting a protective role of dopamine D2 receptors against alcohol’s addictive effects,” said study author Foteini Delis, a neuroanatomist with the Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Lab at Brookhaven, which is funded through the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).  Coauthor and Brookhaven/NIAA neuroscientist Peter Thanos stated that, “These studies should help us better understand the role of genetic variability in alcoholism and alcohol-induced brain damage in people, and point the way to more effective prevention and treatment strategies.”

Heart Disease More Likely Caused by Cholesterol Deficiency Rather than Excess! (Dr. Mercola)

Through her research, Dr. Seneff has developed a theory in which the mechanism we call “cardiovascular disease” (of which arterial plaque is a hallmark) is actually your body’s way to compensate for not having enough cholesterol sulfate. To understand how this works, you have to understand the interrelated workings of cholesterol, sulfur, and vitamin D from sun exposure.

Cholesterol sulfate is produced in large amounts in your skin when it is exposed to sunshine. When you are deficient in cholesterol sulfate from lack of sun exposure, your body employs another mechanism to increase it, as it is essential for optimal heart- and brain function. It does this by taking damaged LDL and turning it into plaque. Within the plaque, your blood platelets separate out the beneficial HDL cholesterol, and through a process involving homocysteine as a source of sulfate, the platelets go on to produce the cholesterol sulfate your heart and brain needs. However, this plaque also causes the unfortunate side effect of increasing your risk of cardiovascular disease.

Studies Show Flu Vaccines are Also Ineffective and NOT an Ideal Form of Prevention (Dr. Mercola)

While antiviral drugs such as Tamiflu have been used with greater frequency, the traditional first line of defense against the flu has been vaccines. Alas, when you start looking around, you’ll realize that the evidence against flu vaccines is rapidly mounting as well.  In recent years, we’ve seen a number of truly damaging studies published in the medical literature—although you’ve not seen them publicized in the media!

Here’s a sampling of studies demonstrating the ineffectiveness of flu vaccines. Many of these studies also explain that earlier positive results appear to have been due to various types of bias, and when the bias is removed, the alleged benefits of vaccinating against the flu disappear. There are many more… For another list of additional studies demolishing the claim that the flu vaccine is an effective prevention strategy, see this previous article:

Functional status is a confounder of the association of influenza vaccine and risk of all cause mortality in seniors. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr;35(2):345-52 According to the authors: “… disability indicators tended to be associated with both a higher risk of death and a decreased likelihood of vaccination. Consequently, adjustment for the functional status indicators moved the estimate of the association of influenza vaccination and risk of death closer to the null…” Influenza vaccination and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent elderly people: a population-based, nested case-control study. Lancet. 2008 Aug 2;372(9636):398-405

The authors concluded that “… influenza vaccination was not associated with a reduced risk of community-acquired pneumonia during the influenza season”

Evidence of bias in estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in seniors. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr;35(2):337-44 The authors concluded that, “The reductions in risk before influenza season indicate preferential receipt of vaccine by relatively healthy seniors. Adjustment for diagnosis code variables did not control for this bias. In this study, the magnitude of the bias demonstrated by the associations before the influenza season was sufficient to account entirely for the associations observed during influenza season. “ Benefits of examining influenza vaccine associations outside of influenza season
Comment on: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep 1;178(5):527-33. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep 1;178(5):439-40. The authors explain how their approach “show that the lower risks of all-cause mortality and pneumonia hospitalization consistently observed in studies comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated community-dwelling seniors during influenza season are largely, or perhaps entirely, due to bias…”
Mortality benefits of influenza vaccination in elderly people: an ongoing controversy. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007 Oct;7(10):658-66 According to the authors: “Recent excess mortality studies were unable to confirm a decline in influenza-related mortality since 1980, even as vaccination coverage increased from 15% to 65%… We conclude that frailty selection bias and use of non-specific endpoints such as all-cause mortality have led cohort studies to greatly exaggerate vaccine benefits. The remaining evidence base is currently insufficient to indicate the magnitude of the mortality benefit, if any, that elderly people derive from the vaccination programme.” Relation of study quality, concordance, take home message, funding, and impact in studies of influenza vaccines: systematic review. BMJ. 2009 Feb 12;338:b354 According to the authors: “Evidence is of poor quality, and studies with conclusions in favor of vaccines are of significantly lower methodological quality. Influenza vaccines studies sponsored by industry are published in journals with higher impact factors and are cited more but are of similar size and quality to the others.”